Advanced manufacturing process by vk jain pdf

This article is about the era of dominance of Western Civilization. For the 1981 book, see The European Miracle. Maddison’s estimates of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in 1990 international dollars for selected European and Asian advanced manufacturing process by vk jain pdf between 1500 and 1950, showing the explosive growth of some European nations from the early 19th century.

The European book output rose between 500 and 1800 by a factor of 100,000, particularly after the Printing Revolution in 1450. 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Mughal India, Qing China, the Ottoman Empire, Tokugawa Japan, and Joseon Korea. Scholars have proposed a wide variety of theories to explain why the Great Divergence happened, including geography, colonialism, resources, customary traditions, and socio-economics.

Scholars also trace back the beginning of the Great Divergence to different periods, with many tracing it back to the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century Britain, while others trace it back to earlier periods of Western history, such as the commercial revolution and the origins of mercantilism and capitalism during the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the rise of the European colonial empires, proto-globalization, the Scientific Revolution, or the Age of Enlightenment. The “traditional view”, sometimes described as a near-consensus view, is that the Great Divergence occurred before the Industrial Revolution, with Western European states surpassing China, Japan and the Middle East by 1750.