Atlas of general surgical techniques pdf

They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee. In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob’s ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while atlas of general surgical techniques pdf a very large range of motion.


Cruciate ligaments occur in the knee of humans and other bipedal animals and the corresponding stifle of quadrupedal animals, and in the neck, fingers, and foot. These ligaments are two strong, rounded bands that extend from the head of the tibia to the intercondyloid notch of the femur. The ACL is lateral and the PCL is medial.

They cross each other like the limbs of an X. They are named for their insertion into the tibia: the ACL attaches to the anterior aspect of the intercondylar area, the PCL to the posterior aspect. The ACL and PCL remain distinct throughout and each has its own partial synovial sheath.

Relative to the femur, the ACL keeps the tibia from slipping forward and the PCL keeps the tibia from slipping backward. Another structure of this type in human anatomy is the cruciate ligament of the dens of the atlas vertebra, also called “cruciform ligament of the atlas”, a ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The cruciate pulleys tether the long flexor tendons. The thumb has a similar system for its long flexor tendon but with a single oblique pulley replacing the cruciate pulleys found in the fingers.