This article is about the alcoholic beverage. Beer beer brewing guide pdf the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.
In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation. Some of humanity’s earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and “The Hymn to Ninkasi”, a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games such as bar billiards. Various legal definitions of beer exist in different countries. Historically, the most famous of these was the Reinheitsgebot, which applied to parts of the Holy Roman Empire and Germany and required beer to be made from only water, hops, and barley.