The symptoms of worsening kidney function are not specific, and might chronic kidney disease patient education pdf feeling generally unwell or having a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people who are at risk, such as those with high blood pressure, diabetes, or a family history.
This disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, pericarditis or renal osteodystrophy. Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine. Prior guidelines classified the severity of CKD in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and stage 5 being a severe illness with poor life expectancy if untreated.
Stage 5 CKD, also called end-stage kidney disease, usually means the person requires renal replacement therapy, which may involve a form of dialysis or a kidney transplant. Screening of at-risk people is important because treatments exist that delay the progression of CKD.
If an underlying cause, such as vasculitis, or blockage to the drainage system of the kidneys is found, it may be treated directly to slow the damage. In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and bone disease. Chronic kidney disease was the cause of 956,000 deaths globally in 2013, up from 409,000 in 1990.