Please forward this error screen to 64. In psychology, coping means to invest own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize coping skills activities pdf tolerate stress and conflict. The psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills. That is strategies which reduce stress.
In contrast, other coping strategies may be coined as maladaptive, if they increase stress. Maladaptive coping is therefore also described, when looking at the outcome, as non-coping.
Furthermore, the term coping generally refers to reactive coping, i. This differs from proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to neutralize a future stressor. The effectiveness of the coping effort depends on the type of stress, the individual, and the circumstances. Hundreds of coping strategies have been identified.
Classification of these strategies into a broader architecture has not been agreed upon. Emotion-Focused: changing personal emotional reactions. Appraisal-focused strategies occur when the person modifies the way they think, for example: employing denial, or distancing oneself from the problem. People may alter the way they think about a problem by altering their goals and values, such as by seeing the humor in a situation: “some have suggested that humor may play a greater role as a stress moderator among women than men”.
People using problem-focused strategies try to deal with the cause of their problem. They do this by finding out information on the problem and learning new skills to manage the problem. Problem-focused coping is aimed at changing or eliminating the source of the stress. The three problem-focused coping strategies identified by Folkman and Lazarus are: taking control, information seeking, and evaluating the pros and cons.