For the academic journal, god in the dock essays on theology and ethics pdf The Monist. The circled dot was used by the Pythagoreans and later Greeks to represent the first metaphysical being, the Monad or The Absolute. In this view only one thing is ontologically basic or prior to everything else.
The restricted definition: this requires not only unity of origin but also unity of substance and essence. In modern Hinduism, the term “absolute monism” is being used for Advaita Vedanta. The problem was addressed by René Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, and by pre-Aristotelian philosophers, in Avicennian philosophy, and in earlier Asian and more specifically Indian traditions.
It was later also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth by Hegel and Schelling. Thereafter the term was more broadly used, for any theory postulating a unifying principle. The opponent thesis of dualism also was broadened, to include pluralism. According to Urmson, as a result of this extended use, the term is “systematically ambiguous”.
According to Jonathan Schaffer, monism lost popularity due to the emergence of Analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century, which revolted against the neo-Hegelians. Carnap and Ayer, who were strong proponents of positivism, “ridiculed the whole question as incoherent mysticism”. Monism is also still relevant to the philosophy of mind, where various positions are defended.
A diagram with neutral monism compared to Cartesian dualism, physicalism and idealism. Metaphysical pluralism, which asserts three or more fundamental substances or realities.
Certain positions do not fit easily into the above categories, such as functionalism, anomalous monism, and reflexive monism. Moreover, they do not define the meaning of “real”. Reality is some, one thing, but we cannot know what. Parmenides argued that Being or Reality is an unmoving perfect sphere, unchanging, undivided.
Neopythagorians such as Apollonius of Tyana centered their cosmologies on the Monad or One. Stoics taught that there is only one substance, identified as God. Middle Platonism under such works as Numenius taught that the Universe emanates from the Monad or One. Plotinus taught that there was an ineffable transcendent god, ‘The One,’ of which subsequent realities were emanations.