Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. Adipose tissue is derived from preadipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in healthy lifestyle questionnaire for students pdf years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.
The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner in 1551. Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots.
SVF includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, adipose tissue macrophages, and endothelial cells. Adipose tissue contains many small blood vessels. In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold.
Around organs, it provides protective padding. However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles.
Under normal conditions, it provides feedback for hunger and diet to the brain. The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. It is unable to produce the hormone leptin, resulting in obesity.
For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right. Mice have eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity. Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots, respectively.
The inguinal depots enclose the inguinal group of lymph nodes. Minor depots include the pericardial, which surrounds the heart, and the paired popliteal depots, between the major muscles behind the knees, each containing one large lymph node. In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. A panniculus complicates surgery of the morbidly obese individual.