The design of a DBMS depends on its architecture. It n tier architecture pdf be centralized or decentralized or hierarchical.
The architecture of a DBMS can be seen as either single tier or multi-tier. An n-tier architecture divides the whole system into related but independent n modules, which can be independently modified, altered, changed, or replaced. In 1-tier architecture, the DBMS is the only entity where the user directly sits on the DBMS and uses it. Any changes done here will directly be done on the DBMS itself.
It does not provide handy tools for end-users. Database designers and programmers normally prefer to use single-tier architecture.
If the architecture of DBMS is 2-tier, then it must have an application through which the DBMS can be accessed. Programmers use 2-tier architecture where they access the DBMS by means of an application. Here the application tier is entirely independent of the database in terms of operation, design, and programming. A 3-tier architecture separates its tiers from each other based on the complexity of the users and how they use the data present in the database.