These two needs gave rise substitution techniques in cryptography pdf the art of coding the messages in such a way that only the intended people could have access to the information. Unauthorized people could not extract any information, even if the scrambled messages fell in their hand. The art and science of concealing the messages to introduce secrecy in information security is recognized as cryptography. The art of cryptography is considered to be born along with the art of writing.
As civilizations evolved, human beings got organized in tribes, groups, and kingdoms. This led to the emergence of ideas such as power, battles, supremacy, and politics. These ideas further fueled the natural need of people to communicate secretly with selective recipient which in turn ensured the continuous evolution of cryptography as well. The roots of cryptography are found in Roman and Egyptian civilizations.
Some 4000 years ago, the Egyptians used to communicate by messages written in hieroglyph. This code was the secret known only to the scribes who used to transmit messages on behalf of the kings. One such hieroglyph is shown below. Later, the scholars moved on to using simple mono-alphabetic substitution ciphers during 500 to 600 BC.